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Srikrishna Committee Report on Telangana - Options. Report Download, Hyderabad
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SRIKRISHNA COMMITTEE REPORT DOWNLOAD. 6 OPTIONS. TELANGANA REPORT BY SRIKRISHNA COMMITTEE. HYDERABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH.

Exclusive Ventures - January 2010


SRIKRISHNA COMMITTEE REPORT IN TELENGANA - DOWNLOAD. 6 OPTIONS. TELANGANA REPORT BY SRIKRISHNA COMMITTEE. HYDERABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH.

The Srikrishna Committee does not state whether it's in favour of a new state for Telangana. Instead, it lists the following options for the union government to consider.

Option 1: Maintain status quo
(Least favored option as per Article 9.3(1) of the Report)

Option 2: Bifurcation of the State into Seemandhra and Telangana; with Hyderabad as a Union Territory and the two states developing their own capitals in due course
(Committee Found this option Not Practicable as per Article 9.3(ii) of the Report)

Option 3: Bifurcation of State into Rayala-Telangana and coastal Andhra regions with Hyderabad being an integral part of Rayala- Telangana
(While this option has good economic justification, may not be acceptable to all the people as per Article 9.3(iii) of the Report)

Option 4: Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh into Seemandhra and Telangana with enlarged Hyderabad Metropolis as a separate Union Territory. This Union Territory will have geographical linkage and contiguity via Nalgonda district in the south-east to district Guntur in coastal Andhra and via Mahboobnagar district in the south to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema
(Though there are some positives of this option it may be difficult to reach a political consensus in making this solution acceptable to all according to Article 9.3(iv) of the Report)

Option 5: Bifurcation of the State into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries with Hyderabad as the capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have a new capital
(This option is considered as the second best option by the committee as per Article 9.3(v) of the Report)

Option 6: Keeping the State united by simultaneously providing certain definite Constitutional/Statutory measures for socio-economic development and political empowerment of Telangana region - creation of a statutorily empowered Telangana Regional Council
(This is the most preferred and recommended option by the Committee as per Article 9.3(vi) of the Report)
SRIKRISHNA COMMITTE REPORT - OPTIONS



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OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS/OPTIONS SUGGESTED BY SRIKRISHNA COMMITTEE

After going into all aspects of the situation as well as keeping in view the local, regional and national perspective, the Committee has given following suggestions

RELEVANT EXTRATS FROM REPORT FOR QUICK READING

(1) Maintain status quo
(Least favored option as per Article 9.3(1) of the Report)


This implies treating the issue as basically a law and order/public order challenge to be handled by the state government, not requiring any major intervention by the Union Government. Such an approach is based on the history of the last 54 years when the demand for a separate state of Telangana was dealt with mainly in a political manner by accommodating different interest groups in the government and the party structure.

At the same time, it is noticed that the emotional appeal of "Telugu Pride" was invoked to keep separatist sentiments in check with the result that the demand for Telangana subsided but did not entirely disappear.

Above all, there were the sentimental and emotional reasons and attachment to a long held desire for a separate state of Telangana. The Committee did not find any real evidence of any major neglect by the state government in matters of overall economic development (Chapter 2).

However, there are some continuing concerns regarding public employment, education, and water and irrigation, which have been dealt with in the respective Chapters of the Report. Since the emotional satisfaction of the people of Telangana will not be met if no steps are taken, it is anticipated that immediate backlash will take place in the form of violent agitations in the region which may continue for some time.

In view of the complex background of the situation and the rather serious and sensitive emotional aspects involved, the Committee is of the unanimous view that it would not be practical to simply maintain the status quo in respect of the situation. Some intervention is definitely required and though maintaining the existing status quo is an option, it is favoured the least.

(2) Bifurcation of the State into Seemandhra and Telangana; with Hyderabad as a Union Territory and the two states developing their own capitals in due course
(Committee Found this option Not Practicable as per Article 9.3(ii) of the Report)
(a) This option underscores the pivotal position of Hyderabad historically and its economic significance at all levels - regional, national and international. Hyderabad is now regarded as an engine of growth in view of its position in the global economy as being a hub of information technology and Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES).

Besides, it has a thriving real estate industry with strong participation of national players in addition to regional firms. It also has a manufacturing base in the nearby Rangareddy district which has attracted investors from the coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions as well as from outside. A number of public sector organizations, national institutions, civil and military establishments and defence institutions are also located in and around Hyderabad.

Over the years migration has completely changed the demographics of the city and the total number of people from other regions and from outside the state residing in the metropolis is very substantial and estimated to be more than one third of the population of the Greater Hyderabad Metropolitan area. Only continued economic growth can lead to expansion of employment opportunities and therefore the current economic inter-linkages of Hyderabad with other regions need to be developed and preserved so that there is an assured climate of certainty and stable business environment.

In our context, when there are equally strong competing claims on a thriving urban conglomerate, the Union Territory model is often considered workable and accordingly, in this option it is suggested that if the state of Andhra Pradesh is divided into two units then Hyderabad could become a Union Territory with a common capital for the present and the states eventually developing their own capitals over time.

As the revenues from the proposed Union Territory would go to the Central Government, a mutually agreed formula for equitable apportionment of the grants could be devised for all the three regions.

It was considered that this option would be more acceptable to the people from coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions as their economic interests in Hyderabad would remain protected though they would prefer that the state stays united with Hyderabad as its capital. However, this option also has severe implications and will, in all probability, give rise to a renewed and serious agitation by the people of Telangana insisting on inclusion of Hyderabad only in Telangana and making the functioning/ governance of the Union Territory a very difficult task. Besides, the geographical contiguity and access to Hyderabad, to which strong economic and personal linkages of people from coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema exist, will be physically cut off with two districts i.e. Nalgonda towards coastal Andhra and Mahabubnagar towards Rayalaseema (both districts part of Telangana) lying in between the boundaries of the three regions. This situation could be used by agitators in blocking supplies, drinking water etc.

On overall consideration, therefore, the Committee found this option also not practicable.

(3) Bifurcation of State into Rayala-Telangana and coastal Andhra regions with Hyderabad being an integral part of Rayala- Telangana
(While this option has good economic justification, may not be acceptable to all the people as per Article 9.3(iii) of the Report)


(a) This suggestion was put to the Committee as the second preference by some sections of the people of Rayalaseema region. Their first preference was for a united Andhra. AIMIM also, while strongly advocating the cause of united Andhra Pradesh as being in the best interest of economic growth and welfare of the minority Muslim community, stated that in the event of division of the state it would be in the community's interest to form a new state combining the regions of Telangana and Rayalaseema.

A second rationale for combining the two regions is suggested by the economic analysis of the state which has shown that Rayalaseema is the most backward of the three regions. It is dependent on Telangana for water and irrigation resources and values its access to Hyderabad for employment and education. There is also greater social homogeneity between the two regions. It is for these reasons that given a choice between coastal Andhra and Telangana, the Rayalaseema people may prefer to join Telangana. Our analysis suggests that primarily taking economic and social parameters into account this would be a viable and sustainable option.

(b) On the other hand, however, such a move will be strongly resisted by all political parties and groups from Telangana region (outside of the old city of Hyderabad) as most of them believe that Rayalaseema political leadership has been one of the most important contributory factors in keeping them at a disadvantage while at the same time exploiting their land resources.

While this option may have economic justification, the Committee believes that this option may not offer a resolution which would be acceptable to people of all three regions.

(4) Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh into Seemandhra and Telangana with enlarged Hyderabad Metropolis as a separate Union Territory. This Union Territory will have geographical linkage and contiguity via Nalgonda district in the south-east to district Guntur in coastal Andhra and via Mahboobnagar district in the south to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema
(Though there are some positives of this option it may be difficult to reach a political consensus in making this solution acceptable to all according to Article 9.3(iv) of the Report)


(a) This option flows from option (ii) which highlights the characteristics of Hyderabad as a growing global city. The city's boundaries have recently been revised to extend the municipal limits from the 175 Km2 of the erstwhile MCH to 625 km2 of the current GHMC. The erstwhile HUDA has been replaced by an expanded HMDA, headed by the Chief Minister, with a substantial area of 7073 km2, which is about twice the size of the state of Goa. In this option an extended Union Territory of approx. 12,000 km2 has been proposed, the contours of which are given in the map (in Report):

The extended Union Territory will comprise 67 Mandals, 1330 Villages, 12430 KM2 area covering districts:
  • Ranga Reddy
  • Medak
  • Mahboobnagar
  • Nalgonda
  • Hyderabad

(b) In the view of the Committee, Hyderabad region is critical to the growing economy of the state and the nation as a whole. Its GDP is becoming increasingly centred in the modern services and transport sector which accounted for 58% of its GDP in 2005-06, up from 43% in 1999-2000. Being the main software centre of Andhra Pradesh it also accounts for 15% of the national IT exports. Besides, infrastructure and real estate are the other key growth areas in Hyderabad. Hyderabad is also a strategically important city for the nation. It hosts many institutions of excellence and establishments of strategic importance. These not only source talent from all over the country, but are also vital from the national security perspective.

(c) In view of these considerations it was found necessary to suggest an expanded Union Territory as an option. The merit of this suggestion is that all the three regions will have geographical contiguity and physical access to Hyderabad metropolis. It may also house the capitals of both Telangana and Seemandhra as in the Chandigarh model with a separate Union Territory administrative set up. Most of the administrative, police, etc. officers will be drawn from the existing state cadres. Plenty of space would be available for infrastructure development. Since this would be a reasonably larger area with a population of well over 10 million people, the model could be a mix of Chandigarh and Delhi UTs.

(d) On the flip side, it may be stated that this proposal will receive stiff opposition from Telangana protagonists for two reasons i)Telangana has always considered Hyderabad as an integral part of the region and they would not be happy with a common capital of all the regions located in Hyderabad and ii) partly merging portions of the two Telangana districts i.e. Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar may also be resented (although in the long term these districts/Mandals are expected to grow economically at a much faster pace than at present).

Besides, there may be opposition from all the three regions that part of the state i.e. Hyderabad and adjoining areas will become a Union Territory. As Hyderabad is a major economic hub and the capital city, which the state has nourished and developed over a period of time, this proposal may find opposition from several quarters. As such, while there are some positives of this option it may be difficult to reach a political consensus in making this solution acceptable to all.

(5) Bifurcation of the State into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries with Hyderabad as the capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have a new capital
(This option is considered as the second best option by the committee as per Article 9.3(v) of the Report)


a) In this option there would be a clear division of Andhra Pradesh into two states - Telangana and Seemandhra and in the interim Hyderabad will continue to house both the capitals till a new capital for Seemandhra is created. For creation of a new capital, a large investment would be required, provision for which will have to be made both by the Union and the state governments. This option implies accepting the full demands of a large majority of Telangana people for a separate state that will assuage their emotional feelings and sentiments as well as the perceived sense of discrimination and neglect.

b) The implications of this option are that (i) if earlier agitations are anything to go by, this decision will give rise to serious and violent agitations in the coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions, where the backlash will be immediate; the key issues being Hyderabad and sharing of water and irrigation resources; (ii) there will be every likelihood of pressure being put by the general public on the leaders of the political parties of Seemandhra region (MLAs/MLCs/MPs) to resign and fight for united Andhra Pradesh; (iii) the agitation for separation of Rayalaseema from coastal Andhra may also start taking shape sooner than expected; (iv) even though water and irrigation issues can be handled by creating autonomous/semi-autonomous structures, the apprehensions of the people of coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema will continue to be voiced; and (v) the impact on internal security situation with the anticipated growth of Naxalism and religious fundamentalism.

c) The division of the state will also have serious implications outside Andhra Pradesh. The matter should also be seen in the larger context of whether a region can be allowed to decide for itself what its political status should be, as that would only create a demand for a great number of small states resulting in problems of coordination and management.

d) As noted in the Chapter on Economic and Equity Analysis, the economic dimension is also not to be lost sight of. The world over, there is a trend towards economic integration with economic blocs consisting of many smaller nations being formed in the interest of enhancing economic opportunities, markets and employment. It is normally believed that formation of smaller states contributes to pre-existing barriers to inter-state and intrastate trade and movement of goods and services. Economically, the land locked region of Telangana may also lose out on access and opportunities to the eastern coastline which has a major port in Vishakhapatnam and many other sea ports. With vast discoveries of oil and gas on the anvil and the resultant likely spurt in economic growth and employment in the coastal region, an integrated economy is likely to benefit the people of both regions optimally rather than through separation by formation of Telangana state. However, the overall economic viability of Telangana with Hyderabad is projected to be stable and as a matter of fact the GDP of this state will be much larger than many other states in the country.

e) The Committee is of the view that given the long history of the demand for a separate Telangana, the highly charged emotions at present and the likelihood of the agitation continuing in case the demand is not met (unless handled deftly, tactfully and firmly as discussed under option six), consideration has to be given to this option.

The continuing demand, therefore, for a separate Telangana, the Committee felt, has some merit and is not entirely unjustified. In case this option is exercised, the apprehensions of the coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema people and others who have settled in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana with regard to their investments, properties, livelihood and employment, would need to be adequately addressed and confidence instilled that their safety and security would get the highest priority from the new dispensation. Considering all aspects, the Committee felt that while creation of a separate Telangana would satisfy a large majority of people from the region, it would also throw up several other serious problems as indicated above. The implications for the other two regions also cannot be ignored. Therefore, after taking into account all the pros and cons, the Committee did not think it to be the most preferred, but the second best option. Separation is recommended only in case it is unavoidable and if this decision can be reached amicably amongst all the three regions.

(6) Keeping the State united by simultaneously providing certain definite Constitutional/Statutory measures for socio-economic development and political empowerment of Telangana region - creation of a statutorily empowered Telangana Regional Council
(This is the most preferred and recommended option by the Committee as per Article 9.3(vi) of the Report)


a) In view of various considerations indicated earlier, the Committee is convinced that the development aspect was of utmost importance for the welfare of all the three regions and could best be addressed through a model that includes deeper and more extensive economic and political decentralization.

The Committee believes that overall it may not be necessary to have a duplication or multiplication of capitals, assemblies, ministries, courts, institutions and administrative infrastructure required by the other options. The Committee considers that unity is in the best interest of all the three regions of the state as internal partitions would not be conducive to providing sustainable solutions to the issues at hand. In this option, it is proposed to keep the state united and provide constitutional/statutory measures to address the core socio-economic concerns about development of Telangana region.

This can be done through the establishment of a statutory and empowered Telangana Regional Council with adequate transfer of funds, functions and functionaries in keeping with the spirit of Gentlemen's Agreement of 1956. The Regional Council would provide a legislative consultative mechanism for the subjects to be dealt with by the Council. This would imply that if the State Legislature has to enact a law which impinges upon such subjects as are being dealt with by the Council then the matter would be referred to the Council for comments/suggestions. Likewise, if the Council forwards a resolution to the Government for enacting certain legislation on the subjects within its domain, such a resolution shall be discussed in the Assembly for becoming a law.

The Chairman of the Regional Council should be an MLA enjoying the rank and status of a Cabinet Minister in the state government. The Council will implement the sub-plan for Telangana Region and for this purpose funds, functions and functionaries will be placed at the disposal of the Council. The Council will be served by its own Secretariat headed by an officer of the level of Additional Chief Secretary in the State who would report to the Chairman of the Council. The total membership of the Council which should essentially be from amongst the MLAs/MLCs should depend on the number of subjects transferred to the Council and its total work load.

Other confidence building measures that need to be initiated include providing adequate political space to Telangana, such as the positions of Chief Minister or Deputy Chief Minister and other key ministerial portfolios. It would also be necessary that for confidence building, important meetings in Government of India particularly where allocation of development and other funds are discussed such as the ones chaired by the Finance Minister, Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission and the Chairman of Finance Commission are attended by both CM and Deputy CM. The Committee is of the considered view that the momentum for a separate Telangana started picked up from the time the decisions incorporated in the Gentlemen's Agreement were not implemented. With the constitution of the proposed statutory council, these grievances would be taken care of.

The united Andhra option is being suggested for continuing the development momentum of the three regions and keeping in mind the national perspective. With firm political and administrative management it should be possible to convey conviction to the people that this option would be in the best interest of all and would provide satisfaction to the maximum number of people in the state. It would also take care of the uncertainty over the future of Hyderabad as a bustling educational, industrial and IT hub/destination. For management of water and irrigation resources on an equitable basis, a technical body i.e. Water Management Board and an Irrigation Project Development Corporation in expanded role have been recommended. The above course of action should meet all the issues raised by Telangana people satisfactorily.

The Committee expects that the first reaction to this option will be of a total rejection by some political leaders, other groups and organizations and a majority of people from Telangana region, since their long standing demand for a separate Telangana would not have been met. Although the model recommended is considered to be in the best interest of all the people of the state some segments of Telangana population, such as students and unemployed youth (who have been promised lakhs of jobs), non-gazetted officers (who are anticipating accelerated promotions), lawyers and farmers etc. may not feel satisfied and may resort to violent agitations.

The Committee discussed all aspects of this option and while it acknowledges that there will be certain difficulties in its implementation, on balance, it found it the most workable option in the given circumstances and in the best interest of the social and economic welfare of the people of all the three regions.

The core issue being one of socio-economic development and good governance, the Committee, keeping the national perspective in mind, is of the considered view that this option stands out as the best way forward. This option, thus, suggests a model that carries forward the national goal of deepening and extending decentralization and of sustaining inclusive growth. It is hoped that the model suggested here would be useful in addressing regional aspirations elsewhere in the country.

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